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In javascript, Math is a built-in object which has many properties and methods that is used to deal with mathematical constants and functions.

Math is not a constructor, Unlike Array or String. All the methods and properties of Math are static, meaning you can directly use methods and properties with class names. example Math.PI, Math.sin(x) etc.

Note: Static methods and properties belong to class not to its object. All the methods and properties can be called on Math as an object.


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Math Object Properties

Property Description
Math.PI returns value of pi (ratio of circumference to diameter)
Math.E returns euler's constant
Math.LN2 returns natural logarithm of 2 (approx 0.693)
Math.LN10 returns natural logarithm of 10 (approx 2.303)
Math.LOG2E returns logarithm of E at base 2 (approx 1.443)
Math.LOG10E returns logarithm of E at base 10 (approx 0.434)
Math.SQRT1_2 returns Square root of 1/2 (approx 0.707)
Math.SQRT2 returns Square root of 2 (approx 1.414)


Example: Math.PI

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Example: Math.E

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Example: Math.LN2

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Example: Math.LN10

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Example: Math.LOG2E

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Example: Math.LOG10E

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Example: Math.SQRT1_2

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Example: Math.SQRT2

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Javascript Math methods

Method Description
Math.abs(x) Returns the absolute value of x
Math.acos() Returns the arccosine of given number in radian
Math.acosh() Returns the hyperbolic arccosine of a number
Math.asine() Returns the arcsine of given number in radian
Math.asinh() Returns the hyperbolic arccosine of a number
Math.atan() Returns the arctangent of given number in radian
Math.atan2(y,x) Returns the arctangent of quotient of its argument
Math.atanh(y,x) Returns the hyperbolic arctangent of x
Math.cbrt(x) Returns the cube root of x
Math.ceil(x) Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to x
Math.cos(x) Returns the cosine of x
Math.cosh(x) Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x
Math.exp(x) Returns the Ex, where E is Euler number
Math.floor(x) Returns the largest integer less than or equal to x
Math.log(x) Returns the natural logarithm of x (loge )
Math.log10(x) Returns the base-10 logarithm of x
Math.log2(x) Returns the base-2 logarithm of x
Math.pow(x,y) Returns base x to exponent y ( xy )
Math.random() Returns a random number between 0 and 1
Math.round(x) Returns the value of number rounded to nearest integer
Math.sign(x) Returns sign of x, +ve -ve or 0
Math.sqrt(x) Returns the square root of x

Lets see few Examples.

The abs() method

The Math.abs(x) method return absolute value of x.

Example: Math.abs(x)

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The Math.floor(x) and Math.ceil(x) method

The Math.floor(x) method return largest number less than or equal to x.

The Math.ceil(x) method return smallest number greater than or equal to x.


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The random() method

The Math.random() method returns a random number in between 0 and 1.

This method can be used to get a random number between any integer.

Example: Math.random()

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The round(x) method

The Math.round(x) method returns the value of the round number nearest to x.

Example: Math.round(x)

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Trigonometric operation in Javascript

The Math object has many built-in trigonometric methods that can be used to calculate Trigonometric values.

Example: Math.trigonometry

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