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HTML CLASSES


HTML has an attribute called class attribute.

you can think about class as a box of defined CSS properties, when you mention a class to any element then that element gets all the CSS property specified for that class.

A class is defined either in an external CSS document or inside <style> tag.

A class is defined starting with a dot ( . ) followed by class name. All CSS properties are specified after that inside the curly braces { } .


Defining and using a HTML class

To define a class :

  • step 1: create a <style> tag in <head> tag.
  • Step 2: write the name of your class starting with a dot ( . ) .
  • step 3: Make curly braces.Define the CSS properties in side curly braces.
  • step 4: Create a class attribute inside the tag you want to define those CSS properties and give it the name of your class within a double quote.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
  <style>
    .class-name {
      color: red;
      font-size: 20px;
    }
  </style>
</head>

<body>
  <h2>This is not given any class.</h2>
  <p class="class-name">This paragraph has class named "class-name".</p>
</body>

</html>
▶ Run the code

Multiple classes in single element

Multiple classes can be added to a single tag by giving a space between the class names.

Example: <p class="class1 class2 class3">...content...</p>

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
  <style>
    .class1 {
      color: white;
      font-size: 20px;
    }

    .class2 {
      background-color: #006699;
    }
  </style>
</head>

<body>
  <h2>This is not given any class.</h2>
  <p class="class1 class2">This paragraph has 2 classes named class1 and class2.</p>
</body>

</html>
▶ Run the code

Adding class to similar objects

The class attribute can be added on any tag and a specific class added to any number of times.

All tags having the same class have the same properties.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
  <style>
    .a-fruit {
      color: white;
      background-color: orange;
      font-size: 20px;
      text-align: center;
      height: 100px;
      width: 100px;
      border-radius: 50%;
    }
  </style>
</head>

<body>
  <h2>All fruits are given same class named a-fruit.</h2>
  <p class="a-fruit">Apple</p>
  <p class="a-fruit">orange</p>
  <p class="a-fruit">papaya</p>
</body>

</html>
▶ Run the code

Adding CSS property to class by javascript

A class can be given CSS property by any event on the webpage like- onclick(), onload(), onmouseover() etc.

To add any CSS property by javascript first we have to select that class using javascript DOM.

We can select the class using document.getElementsByClassName("class-name") and call a function over any event targeting these classes.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
  <script>
    function addcolor() {
      var elements = document.getElementsByClassName("change-color");
      for (var i = 0; i < elements.length; i++) {
        elements[i].style.color = "red";
        elements[i].style.fontSize = "25px";
      }
    }
  </script>
</head>

<body>
  <h2>Adding CSS property to a class using javascript.</h2>
  <button onclick="addcolor()">change color</button>
  <p class="change-color">Apple</p>
  <p class="change-color">orange</p>
  <p class="change-color">papaya</p>
</body>

</html>
▶ Run the code

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