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CSS Tutorial - An Introduction To CSS


What are the 2 basic components of a static website?🤔

Its HTML and CSS.

You can create a beautiful website just using HTML and CSS. HTML creates the structure of a website and CSS gives shapes, designs, and colors to the website.

In this CSS tutorial you are going to learn all about CSS, its use, what it can do, why we need it, and how to use it. You will learn how to create a website with CSS and how to use it to create a website that looks good and works well.


What is CSS?

CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets. It is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML.

CSS is a cornerstone technology of the World Wide Web, alongside HTML and JavaScript.

introduction to CSS

CSS is a language for describing the presentation of Web pages, including colors, layout, size, color, orientation, etc. It allows one to adapt the presentation to different types of devices, such as large screens, small screens, or printers.

CSS has an old history and its current version is called CSS3. CSS3 is a combination of the old version + some new specifications like a media query, namespace, selector, etc.

Here is what a CSS code looks like.

body {
  margin: 0;
}

p { /* Element */
  font-size: 20px;
  color: #000;
}

.btn { /* Button class */
  background-color: #3bcece;
  color: #fff;
  padding: 10px;
  border-radius: 5px;
}

Why do we need CSS?

HTML is a markup language that is used to create the structure of a website. It is used to create the elements of a website like headings, paragraphs, images, links, etc. But it doesn't provide any styling to the website. It is just a skeleton of a website.

So, we need CSS to style the website. CSS is used to style the website and make it look good. It is used to add colors, fonts, sizes, and other styles to the website.

You can say CSS brings colors to the website. It makes the website look good and attractive.


How to use CSS in HTML

You can use CSS with HTML in 3 different ways:

  1. Inline CSS - CSS is written inside HTML tags.
  2. Internal CSS - CSS is written inside HTML files within the <style> tags.
  3. External CSS - CSS is written in a separate file and linked to the HTML file.
how to use CSS in HTML
How to use CSS in HTML (Download the image)

CSS lets you embed its code directly in HTML elements or within an HTML file or even lets you create an external CSS file just for CSS code which you can link to single or multiple HTML files.

Learn in detail how to use CSS in HTML.


See What Difference CSS Can Make

Following is an example of a webpage. Given below is the HTML code for the webpage without any CSS.

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
  <title>CSS - Introduction</title>
</head>
<body>
  <div class="container">
    <div class="first">
      <h1>Hello, World!</h1>
      <p>The most famous line for a programmer.</p>
    </div>
    <div class="box">
      <h2>Learning CSS</h2>
      <p>Learning CSS will let you design beautiful webpages, moving objects, amazing animations, and different shapes on your webpage.</p>
    </div>
    <button>Start Learn CSS With Tutorials Tonight!</button>
  </div>
</body>
</html>
▶ Try it

Output:

HTML without CSS

Now let's add some CSS and make it look cool. See how the look of the webpage changed.

Example

body {
  margin: 0;
  font-family: sans-serif;
}

.container {
  background-color: #ffe8cb;
  border: 5px solid #a87569;
}

h1 {
  font-size: 40px;
  text-align: center;
}

.first p {
  margin-left: 20px;
}

.box {
  padding: 20px;
  background-color: #c49185;
}

button {
  display: block;
  font-size: 18px;
  margin: 20px auto;
  padding: 10px 20px;
  border-radius: 25px;
  background: linear-gradient(to right, #a87569, #ffe8cb);
  border: 1px solid #a87569;
}
▶ Try it

Output:

HTML without CSS

You can see how CSS code changes the look of the webpage. Well, this is just a glimpse of what CSS can do, you will be able to do even more after you learn it.

Note: If you don't understand CSS code currently then don't bother we will look at all properties in detail in the coming sections.


What Can CSS Do?

HTML was designed only for describing the content of the web page not for formatting it.

When formatting tags like <font> and attributes like the color were introduced in HTML 3.2 then it becomes a nightmare for web developers to manage large websites. They had to place font and color information on every page and that looked so overwhelming.

To solve this problem, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) created CSS, which was able to design websites more beautifully and was clean. It removed the style formatting from the HTML page.

Here is a list of a few things that CSS can do:


Why you should learn CSS?

If you want to become a web developer then CSS is among the 3 necessary languages (HTML, CSS, JavaScript) that you must learn.

Here are some key points why you should learn CSS:


History of CSS

CSS was first proposed on 10th Oct 1994 by Håckon Wieum Lie. In that year Microsoft's Internet Explorer 3 was released with very limited support for CSS.

In those days browsers were unable to add complete CSS and also had bugs. It took more than 3 years before any browser reached full implementation of CSS.

It has multiple versions and each version is built upon the previous version, typically adding new features. Newer versions are a subset of one or more levels of CSS built for a particular device and user interface.


Advantages of CSS

CSS provides powerful control over HTML documents. It is also easy to learn and understand.

There are a lot of advantages of learning CSS:


Example Of CSS Code

Here is a working example of HTML + CSS.

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">

<head>
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <title>CSS code example</title>
  <style>
    body {
      margin: 0;
      --space-height: 300px;
      --ball-size: 80px;
    }

    .space {
      width: 100vw;
      height: var(--space-height)
    }

    .ball {
      width: var(--ball-size);
      height: var(--ball-size);
      border-radius: 50%;
      background: #b6b0b2;
      margin: 20px;
      animation: rolling 3s infinite linear;
    }

    @keyframes rolling {
      0% {
        transform: translate(0, calc(var(--space-height) / 2 - var(--ball-size) / 2));
      }

      25% {
        transform: translate(calc(50vw - 40px), calc(var(--space-height) - var(--ball-size)));
      }

      50% {
        transform: translate(calc(100vw - 80px), calc(var(--space-height) / 2 - var(--ball-size) / 2));
      }

      75% {
        transform: translate(calc(50vw - 40px), 0);
      }

      100% {
        transform: translate(0, calc(var(--space-height) / 2 - var(--ball-size) / 2));
      }
    }

    button {
      display: block;
      background: #c90557;
      color: #fff;
      border: none;
      padding: 10px 20px;
      width: 95%;
      margin: 0 auto;
      border-radius: 5px;
      cursor: pointer;
      font-size: large;
      transition: all 0.3s ease-in-out;
    }

    button:hover {
      background: #940340;
    }
  </style>
</head>

<body>
  <div class="space">
    <p class="ball"></p>
  </div>
  <button>Hover me!</button>
</body>

</html>
▶ Try it

Conclusion

CSS is a powerful tool to control the style of webpages. It is easy to learn and understand. It is also easy to maintain. It can be used to control multiple pages at once. It can even be used to control the whole website at once.

Come along with us and learn CSS!